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Forestry in Laos

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In the 1950s, forests covered 70 percent of the land area in Laos; yet, by 1992, according to government estimates, forest coverage had decreased by nearly one-third, to just 47 percent of total land area. Despite the dwindling expanse, timber--including ironwood, mahogany, pine, redwood, and teak--and other forestry products-- benzoin (resin), charcoal, and sticklac--constitute a valuable supply of potential export goods. The forest has also been an important source of wild foods, herbal medicines, and timber for house construction and even into the 1990s continues to be a valued reserve of natural products for noncommercial household consumption. Since the mid-1980s, however, widespread commercial harvesting of timber for the export market has disrupted the traditional gathering of forest products in a number of locations and contributed to extremely rapid deforestation throughout the country.

Agriculture in Laos

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At least 5 million hectares of Laos's total land area of 23,680,000 hectares are suitable for cultivation. However, just 17 percent of the land area (between 850,000 and 900,000 hectares) is actually cultivated, less than 4 percent of the total area. Rice accounted for about 80 percent of cultivated land during the 1989- 90 growing season, including 422,000 hectares of lowland wet rice and 223,000 hectares of upland rice. This demonstrates that although there is interplanting of upland crops and fish are found in fields, irrigated rice agriculture remains basically a monoculture system despite government efforts to encourage crop diversification. Cultivated land area had increased by about 6 percent from 1975-77 but in 1987 only provided citizens with less than one-fourth of a hectare each, given a population of approximately 3.72 million in 1986. In addition to land under cultivation, about 800,000 hectares are used for pastureland or contain ponds for raising fish. Pastureland is rotated, and its use is not fixed over a long period of time.

Energy in Laos

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Mountainous terrain and heavy annual rainfall give Laos considerable hydroelectric potential. The Mekong River and its tributaries in Laos have an estimated hydroelectric potential of between 18,000 and 22,000 megawatts, or roughly half that of the river as a whole. The remaining potential belongs to Cambodia and other riparian countries. Total installed capacity in 1991 was 212 megawatts, the majority of it hydroelectric, or only about 1 percent of the potential.

Production of hydroelectricity, the country's major export until 1987, expanded slowly throughout the 1980s, from 930 thousand megawatt-hours in 1980 to about 1.1 million megawatt-hours in 1989, an increase of about 17 percent. The majority of electricity produced--approximately 75 to 80 percent, as of 1992--is exported to Thailand, which has an agreement to purchase all surplus electricity. The remainder is supplied to power networks for domestic consumption. Through 1986 the sale of electricity to Thailand was the country's most important source of foreign exchange. Despite increased production, in 1987 hydroelectricity yielded its place as the principal export to wood products, because of the drought, which lowered water levels, and a reduction in the unit price of electricity to Thailand. By 1991 a new agreement between Laos and Thailand had raised the unit price of electric power.

Laos Economic Foundation

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Natural Resources

Laos has adopted the concept of its New Economic Mechanism as its policy on economic reform. The policy allows the application of a capitalistic system with the socialistic economy. The reason behind this adoption is the decision for Laos to develop its economy gradually under conditions that maintain decent living standards for its people as well as protect its national identity.

The following is an overview of the country's natural resources, which are the foundation of economic development.

Agriculture, Forestry and Livestock

Cultivated land covers only 8.000 square kilometers of the 80.000 square kilometers of potentially cultivable land. Rice growing accounts for 85% of the area planted. About 1.65 million tones of rice were produced in 1994 and 40% of the total output came from Savannakhet, Saravane and Champasak. Another portion was produced in the Vientiane Municipality.

Laos Electricity and Energy

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Laos has more than thirteen tributaries that join the Mekong River, covering a distance of 1,500 kilometers. The rich soil of both mountainous and riverside areas accounts for 80% of the country's land mass, with rainfall never falling below 2,500 millimeters a year. This provides Laos with electricity generating capacity of not less than 18,000 megawatts.

With such plentiful natural resources, the Government of Laos set up a master plan to develop hydropower. Projects of the tributaries of the Mekong River cover 30 dams around the country that would generate hydroelectricity.

These dams are expected to enhance the country's hydroelectricity generation capacity to 8,520 megawatts. The current capacity stands at 220 megawatts only, most of which have been produced by the Nam Ngum Dam, located to the north of Vientiane, and the Se Set Dam in Saravane.

Laos Natural Resources

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Laos has adopted the concept of its New Economic Mechanism as its policy on economic reform. The policy allows the application of a capitalistic system with the socialistic economy. The reason behind this adoption is the decision for Laos to develop its economy gradually under conditions that maintain decent living standards for its people as well as protect its national identity.

The following is an overview of the country's natural resources, which are the foundation of economic development.

Agriculture, Forestry and Livestock

Cultivated land covers only 8.000 square kilometers of the 80.000 square kilometers of potentially cultivable land. Rice growing accounts for 85% of the area planted. About 1.65 million tones of rice were produced in 1994 and 40% of the total output came from Savannakhet, Saravane and Champasak. Another portion was produced in the Vientiane Municipality.

News in science



Laos wishes to boost sci-tech cooperation with HCM City

Google News - Thu, 2016-06-16 02:49
Laos hopes for support from authorities in Ho Chi Minh City to facilitate joint science and technology projects, said Lao Minister of Science and Technology Boviengkham Vongdara at a meeting with Vice Chairman of the municipal People's Committee Le ... catched




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